Similarly, readymade films and lectures are examples of independent variables, whereas behavioural changes, occurring as a result of the environmental manipulations, are examples of dependent variables.
Usually a research hypothesis must contain, at least, one independent and one dependent variable.
This is an example of non-experimental hypothesis-testing research because herein the independent variable, intelligence, is not manipulated. One important characteristic of a good research design is to minimise the influence or effect of extraneous variable s.
Experiments can be of two types viz.
If one variable depends upon or is a consequence of the other variable, it is termed as a dependent variable, and the variable that is antecedent to the dependent variable is termed as an independent variable.
It can be of the experimental design or of the non-experimental design. Independent variables that are not related to the purpose of the study, but may affect the dependent variable are termed as extraneous variables.
As such the concepts like weight, height, income are all examples of variables. The process of examining the truth of a statistical hypothesis, relating to some research problem, is known as an experiment.
Qualitative phenomena or the attributes are also quantified on the basis of the presence or absence of the concerning attribute s. When the purpose of research is to test a research hypothesis, it is termed as hypothesis-testing research.
When a prediction or a hypothesised relationship is to be tested by scientific methods, it is termed as research hypothesis. But all variables are not continuous. The research hypothesis is a predictive statement that relates an independent variable to a dependent variable. Dependent and independent variables: For instance, suppose a researcher wants to study whether intelligence affects reading ability for a group of students and for this purpose he randomly selects 50 students and tests their intelligence and reading ability by calculating the coefficient of correlation between the two sets of scores.
If we want to determine the impact of a fertilizer on the yield of a crop, it is a case of absolute experiment; but if we want to determine the impact of one fertilizer as compared to the impact of some other fertilizer, our experiment then will be termed as a comparative experiment.
For instance, if we say that height depends upon age, then height is a dependent variable and age is an independent variable. In the illustration taken above, the two treatments are the usual studies programme and the special studies programme.
Predictive statements which are not to be objectively verified or the relationships that are assumed but not to be tested, are not termed research hypotheses. Intelligence may as well affect the social studies achievement, but since it is not related to the purpose of the study undertaken by the researcher, it will be termed as an extraneous variable.
But now suppose that our researcher randomly selects 50 students from a group of students who are to take a course in statistics and then divides them into two groups by randomly assigning 25 to Group A, the usual studies programme, and 25 to Group B, the special studies programme.
This is an example of experimental hypothesis-testing research because in this case the independent variable, viz. Practice Test Before describing the different research designs, it will be appropriate to explain the various concepts relating to designs so that these may be better and easily understood.CHAPTER 4 Research Methodology and Design Introduction All research is based on some underlying philosophical assumptions about what constitutes 'valid' research and which research method(s) is/are appropriate for the integrated cluster of substantive concepts, variables and problems attached with.
These questions will direct the research methodology; their inclusion in the Concept Paper links the research problem with the methodology. For some, composing the research questions may be the most difficult part of the research project, or possibly the most difficult aspect of writing the Concept.
INTRODUCTION 1. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY The concept of the research What are the new challenges women face today, how they cope with them, what they need in. Clarke, R.
J. () Research Methodologies: 2 Agenda Definition of Research Research Paradigms (a.k.a research philosophy or research model) specifying concepts- phenomena of interest as defined in model, and statements- propositions involving concepts Theories, Methods and Application Domains Classes of Research Methodologies that have emerged as a consequence of conducting similar.
IMPORTANT CONCEPTS RELATING TO RESEARCH DESIGN in Research Methodology - IMPORTANT CONCEPTS RELATING TO RESEARCH DESIGN in Research Methodology courses with reference manuals and examples.
Research questions in psychology are about variables. A variable is a quantity or quality that varies across people or situations. For example, the height of the students enrolled in a university course is a variable because it varies from student to student.Download